Ufa is the capital of Bashkortostan, the republic within the Russian Federation with the population more then 1 million. Now days it’s one of the most important industrial andscientific centers of Russia.
Ufa occupies the elevated plateau twisted around by three rivers Agidel, Ufa and Dyoma. The modern city consists of several parts, its length from the southwest to the northeast is more than 70 km. As in the whole of the Urals, the climate here is continental, but milder than in Yekaterinburg and Perm. Winters are normally snowy and cold (the average January t=5 F) and summer are hot (65 F in June).
The largest ethnical groupsinclude Russians (55%), Tatars (28%) and Bashkirs (11%).The city is also home to other minorities - Azeris, Armenians, Belarusians, Kazakhs , Vietnamese, Koreans, Latvians, Maris, Mordvinians, Germans, Udmurt, Jews, Ukrainians, Chuvash. The inhabitants of the city called «Ufimets». Ufa is famous for its oil, gas, minerals, Bashkir honey. Bashkir honey is one of the best varieties of honey in Russia and is one of "the visit cards" of Bashkortostan.
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One of the most popular monument in Ufa is the Monument Drujbi Narodov, which was founded in 1957in honor of the 400 years anniversary of Bashkiria free-will joining the Russian state. It’s height of 33m. 2 girls seat here - one of them is Russian girl, another one is Bashkir, theysymbolize the friendship between Russians and Bashkirs.
The Russian (Slavonic) name of the country " Bashkiriya " formed at the end of the XVI century. Originally it was used in the form «Bashkir’», «Bashkirda», «Bashkir horde». The first writing mentions about Bashkir tribes were in compositions of Gerodot (V century B.C.). Valuable information is contained in works by Sallam Tardzheman (IX cent.) and Ibn-Fadlan (X cent.); Al-Balkhi (X cent.) wrote about Bashkirs as about people, divided into two groups, one of which inhabited the Southern Urals, another one - lived near Danube river , close to the boundaries of Byzantium.
Ufa at night
The word Bashkir consists of 2 words: “bash” - "that meanshead and “ir” - men, also there is a version that the word came from pechenegian language “bashgurt” - " gurt " means “wolf” (wolf was a totem of ancient Turks).
In the 10th century, Islam started to spread among Bashkirs, and in the 14th century it became a dominant religion. Up to the 16th century the territory of modern Bashkortostan was divided between Kazan and Siberia Khanates and Nogai Horde the empire of Gengizkhan. After Kazan fell to Ivan the Terrible in 1554-1555, representatives of western and north-western Bashkir tribes approached the Tsar with a request to voluntarily join the Russian state. Starting from the second half of the 16th century (1556-1557), Bashkiria's territory began taking shape as a part of the Russian state.
Ufa city began as a fortress built on the orders of Ivan IV in 1574, and originally bore the name of the hill it stood on, Tura-Tau. In summer1574, a detachmentof Russian streltci and pushkari (privileged military corps) under the leadership of boyarin Ivan Nogoi laid the foundation of a fortress on the high right bank of the Aghidel river. The fortress started to be called Ufa, most probably, derived from ancient Turkish “ufak”, meaning “small”.In 1802, Ufa became the principal city of Bashkiria.
So the Monument became the sign of memory of those events.