Uxmal, "Built Three Times", (Yucatec Maya: "oxmáal), is a large Maya
site located 34 miles south of Mérida on Highway 261. Many buildings
have been consolidated and restored. Currently little in the way of
serious archeological excavation and research has been done at Uxmal.
Accurate dates of occupation are not known. The population is estimated
to have reached 25,000. Most visible architecture is estimated to have
been built between 600 AD and 1100 AD. Uxmal was founded by Hun Uitzil
Chac Tutul Xiu around 500 AD. The Xiu family controlled Uxmal until
after the Spanish arrival. Sometime after 1200 AD all new monumental
construction ended at Uxmal. This end of construction may possibly be
related to the fall of Chichen Itza (Ally to Uxmal) and the shift of
power in Yucatan to Mayapan and the Comom family.
The Xiu family moved their capital to Maní, and the population
of Uxmal began to rapidly declined. The Xui family allied themselves
with the Spanish in the conquest of the Yucatan. After the Spanish
conquest of Yucatán, early colonial documents significant legal
activity and a place of importance to the Xui family into the 1550s.
should be noted that before archaeologists began restoration and
consolidation activities that Uxmal was in better condition than most
other Maya sites because of superior construction materials,
engineering, experience of the labor force and work ethic. Most
structures were built with well cut stones set into a core of concrete,
not relying on plaster to hold the building together.
architecture here is considered matched only by that of Palenque
elegance and beauty.
The majority of the structures are built in the Puuc style. Puuc
architecture has several predominant features, most notably
constructions with a plain lower section and a richly decorated upper
section. Carvings most commonly found include serpents, lattice work
and masks of the god Chac. There are a number of must see structures at
Palace of the Governor is a long low building erected on a huge
platform, it is the longest facade in Pre-Columbian Mesoamerica.
Adivino "Pyramid of the Magician" is unusual in several ways.
perimeter shape is oval, rather than the usual rectangular or square
shape. It was a common practice in Mesoamerica to build new temple
pyramids directly over older ones, however, the last construction phase
of the Adivino (117 feet tall) was built slightly to the east of the
older pyramid, so that on the west side the temple the old pyramid is
The Nunnery Quadrangle (A name applied by the Spanish; is
thought to be the seat of the government. It is the finest example
elaborately carved facades. Both the inside and outside faces of each
of the four buildings of this quad have the carved mosaic applied to
the upper portions of each. There are 74 small rooms contained in the
four buildings that suraround the courtyard.
Each of the four buildings
has a unique ornate façade, and each is built on a different level. The
northern building is the oldest and the grandest; here you can see many
typical Puuc embellishments - Chac masks arranged one over another
vertically, serpents and lattice work. The building to the east and
closest to the House of the Magician is the best preserved, with a
stack of Chac masks over the central doorway and serpents above the
doorways to the left and right.
The exact purpose of the group is not known, though, given the
size and importance of the site, it is thought likely to have housed
visiting dignitaries or administrative offices.There is a large
Ballcourt for playing the Mesoamerican ballgame.
An intact carved date
glyph records the year of dedicated in 901 by the ruler Chan Chak
K'ak'nal Ajaw. A number of other significant structure are the North
Long Building, House of the Birds, House of the Turtles, Grand Pyramid,
House of the Doves, and South Temple. The House of the Turtles is in
excellent condition. It sits on the same platform holding the Palace of
the Governor and overlooks the Ballcourt.
The majority of all of the hieroglyphic inscriptions present at Uxmal are on a series of stone stelae.
These stelae are grouped together on a single platform. The
stelae depict the ancient rulers of the city, and all show signs that
they were deliberately broken and toppled in antiquity. Some of the
stelae were re-erected and repaired.
There are remains of a hastily
constructed defensive wall which may have encircled most of the central
ceremonial center. There is a wide Sacbe (white road) that links Uxmal
with the Kabah, that is about 12 miles to the south. There is a
considerable amount of archaeological evidence at the small island Maya
site of Uaymil linking it with Uxmal. Uaymil is located to the west on
the Gulf coast. It is likely that Uaymil served as a port for Uxmal and
provided the site access to the circum-peninsular trade network.
The first detailed account of Uxmal was published by Jean Frederic
Waldeck in 1838. John Lloyd Stephens and Frederick Catherwood visited
Uxmal twice in the early 1840s. Désiré Charnay took a series of
photographs of Uxmal in 1860.
In 1863 Empress Carlota of Mexico visited
Uxmal. Prior to her visit some statues and architectural elements
depicting phallic themes were removed. Sylvanus G. Morley visited to
make a site map in 1909. Beginning id 1927 the Mexican government began
their consolidation project. In 1930 Frans Blom of Tulane University
visited Uxmal to make plaster casts of the facades of the "Nunnery
Quadrangle" to be displayed at the 1933 World's Fair in Chicago,
Illinois. There is a small site museum that should be visited prior to
exploring the site. The are 3 hotels within walking distance to the
ruins. You should allow 4 to 6 hours for your visit. There has been an
evening sound and light show that should not be missed.The site is open
between 8:00 AM and 5:00 PM. Admission fee is approximately $10.00 US
depending on the exchange rate.