Al Haffah Travel Blog› entry 5 of 8 › view all entries
This morning we visit the site of Urgarit (Ras Sharma), one of the most important Bronze Age sites in the Middle East and a settlement mentioned in texts that date back to the 14th century BC. It was here,
amongst the ruins of the ancient palace area, that a large number of terracotta tablets were recovered inscribed in Ugaritic, a much simplified form of writing that is now believed to constitute the earliest alphabet ever discovered. Ar-chaeologists unearthed tablets containing some 30 signs that allowed them to decipher the documents and text found at the site.
24 km east of Lattakia, lies a huge solid fortress upstanding on the edge of the gigantic fosse. While its defenses are less intact than studied symmetry of the Krak des Chevaliers and it is less somber and brooding in its aspect than Marqab, this is an example of Crusader castle-building at its most romantic.
Long before the Crusaders, the site was chosen for its defensive properties. Its commanding location protected the sweep of the broad plain behind Lattakia, the reason which probably led to the earliest fortification by the Phoenicians who were holding it when Alexander reached Syria around 333 BC.
When the Byzantines moved into Syria in the second half of the 10th century, the Emperor John I seized this site from the Hamdanid dynasty of Aleppo and began the first substantial defensive works after 975.
In 1188, the castle fell to Saladin, the first major casualty of the Crusader's fundamental problem, the lack of sufficient manpower to protect their far flung positions.
Confident after his major victory over the Crusaders at Hattin in Palestine in 1187 which resulted in the Arab capture of Jerusalem, Saladin took his army on an expedition to the north to probe Crusader defenses and block the prospective access route for a fourth Crusade bent on re-liberating Jerusalem. On 23 July 1188, Lattakia surrendered.
He moved on the next day to Saone, arriving on the 26th and beginning his siege on 27 July.
Unlike the major fortresses seized by the Arab leader, Saone did not lapse back into Crusader hands. It was again occupied in 1280 by a Governor of Damascus but was regained for the Mameluke Sultan Qalaun in 1287. There were, as a result of continuous occupations, a few additions to the fortress of Mameluke and AyyÅ«bid periods, including a mosque built by Sultan Qalaun.
The outer line of walls show the transition from Byzantine to Crusader work. The three relatively slender round towers in the eastern walls are Byzantine in origin, adapted and strengthened in the Crusader rebuilding of the 11thcentury. In the massive square towers to the south, the stone is laid in large blocks finished with neat boscage detailing in a typically precise Crusader style.
The courtyard flanks the main donjon and one finds the cistern and the stables in it. In the lower courtyard is the charming Byzantine chapel. In other parts, there are the Crusader church and another Byzantine chapel.