Zambia is a landlocked nation in southern Africa bordered by several countries. Located just below the equator, most of Zambia is on a high plateau, which gives the country a moderate subtropical climate. In Lusaka, the average temperature in the winter is 61F and 70F in the summer. In 1855 famed British medical missionary David Livingstone was one of the first Westerners to travel through what is now Zambia and to discover the stunning Victoria Falls along the Zambezi River.
Starting in the 1870s some half dozen countries scrambled for control of much of Africa, looking for natural resources. As part of this "scramble for Africa", the British South African Company, under a charter from the British government, turned what is now Zambia into a protectorate nation in 1988 and eventually called it Northern Rhodesia.
Zambia remained under BSA control until 1923, when the British government took control. Zambia gained its independence in 1964.
Zambia has vast grasslands dotted with trees. Wildlife such as lions, elephants, rhinos, and antelope freely roam the countryside. However, Zambia is known for its rich mineral deposits, especially its copper reserves in the country's northwest corner. In the late 1960s it was the world's third largest copper producer. Unfortunately, Zambia depended so heavily on its copper exports that when copper prices tumbled in the mid-70s the country's economy nearly collapsed. Zambia still depends on copper for most of its foreign trade.
As with most of sub-Saharan Africa, HIV-AIDS is endemic in Zambia. Malaria and other diseases make life expectancy in Zambia just 38 years.