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Samadhi of Ranjeet Singh

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The Samadhi of Ranjit Singh

The Samadhi of Ranjit Singh is the mausoleum of the Sikh ruler Maharaja Ranjit Singh. It is located near the Lahore Fort and Badshahi Mosque in Lahore, Pakistan. Construction was started by his son, Kharak Singh on the spot where he was cremated, and was completed by his grandson, Duleep Singh in 1848.

The Lahore Fort

The Lahore Fort, locally referred to as Shahi Qila is citadel of the city of Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.

Best over view of Pakistani Music, Fort and Mosque in Lahore
It is located in the northwestern corner of the Walled City of Lahore. The trapezoidal composition is spread over 20 hectares. Origins of the fort go as far back as antiquity; however, the existing base structure was built during the reign of Mughal emperor Akbar (1556-1605), and was regularly upgraded by subsequent rulers. Thus the fort manifests the rich traditions of the entire Mughal architecture. Some of the famous sites inside the fort include: Sheesh Mahal, Alamgiri Gate, Naulakha pavilion, and Moti Masjid. In 1981, the fort was inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site

The origins of Lahore Fort are obscure and are traditionally based on various myths. However, during the excavation carried out in 1959 by the Department of Archaeology, in front of Diwan-e-Aam, a gold coin of Mahmood of Ghazni dated A.H. 416 (1025 A.D.) was found at a depth of 7.62 metres from the level of the lawns. Cultural layers continued to a further depth of 5 metres, giving strong indications that people had lived here, long before the conquest of Lahore by Mahmood in 1021 A.D.[3] Further mention of the fort is traceable to Shahab-ud-din Muhammad Ghuri's successive invasions of Lahore from 1180 to 1186 A.D.

The Badshahi Mosque

The Badshahi Mosque or the 'Emperor's Mosque', was built in 1673 by the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb in Lahore, Pakistan. It is one of the city's best known landmarks, and a major tourist attraction epitomising the beauty and grandeur of the Mughal era.

Capable of accommodating over 55,000 worshipers, it is the second largest mosque in Pakistan, after the Faisal Mosque in Islamabad. The architecture and design of the Badshahi Masjid is closely related to the Jama Masjid in Delhi, India, which was built in 1648 by Aurangzeb's father and predecessor, Emperor Shah Jahan. Badshahi Masjid is one of the locations where Qari' Abdul Basit recited the Qur'an. The Imam-e-Kaaba (Sheikh Abdur-Rahman Al-Sudais of Saudi Arabia) has also led prayers in this mosque in 2007.

The mosque was built under the patronage of the sixth Mughal Emperor, Aurangzeb Alamgir. It was completed in 1673 under the supervision of Aurangzeb's foster brother Muzaffar Hussain (also known as Fidaie Khan Koka) who was appointed governor of Lahore in May 1671 and held this post until 1675. He was also Master of Ordnance to the emperor. The construction of the mosque took about two years from May 1671 to April 1673. The mosque was built opposite the Lahore Fort, illustrating its stature in the Mughal Empire. In conjunction with the building of the mosque, a new gate was built at the fort, named Alamgiri Gate after the Emperor.

Badshahi Mosque was badly damaged and was misused during Sikh Rule. During the reign of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the mosque was used as a stable for the army's horses.They also would steal the jewels from the mosque, such as marble, rubies, gold, and other valuables. Muslims were not allowed to enter the mosque to worship; they were only given a small place outside the mosque where they could worship.

Even when the British took control of India, they would use the mosque for their military practices by using the mosque for gun practices, cannons, etc. Even when they sensed Muslim hate for the British, they demolished a large portion of the wall of the mosque so the Muslims could not use it as a kind of "fort" for anti-British reasons. After a while, they finally returned it to the Muslims as a good will gesture even though it was in terrible condition. It was then given to Badshahi Mosque Authority to restore it to its original glory. From 1852 onwards, piecemeal repairs were carried out under the supervision of the Badshahi Mosque Authority. Extensive repairs were carried out from 1939 to 1960 at a cost of about 4.8 million rupees, which brought the mosque to its original shape and condition. The blueprint for the repairs was prepared by the late architect Nawab Zen Yar Jang Bahadur. In 2000, the repair work of marble inlay in the main vault was repaired under the supervision of Saleem Anjum Qureshi. On the occasion of the second Islamic Summit held at Lahore on February 22, 1974, thirty-nine heads of Muslim states offered their Friday prayers in the Badshahi Masjid, led by Maulana Abdul Qadir Azad, the 'Khatib' of the mosque.Recently a small museum has also been added to the mosque complex. It contains relics of Muhammad, his cousin Hazrat Ali , and his daughter, Hazrat Fatima Zahra. On August 14, 1947, the Pakistani people celebrated their independence from the British command.

The exterior is decorated with stone carving as well as marble inlay on red sandstone, specially of lotiform motifs in bold relief. The embellishment has Indo-Greek, Central Asian and Indian architectural influence both in technique and motifs.

The skyline is furnished by beautiful ornamental merlons inlaid with marble lining adding grace to the perimeter of the mosque. In its various architectural features like the vast square courtyard, the side aisles (dalans), the four corner minars, the projecting central transept of the prayer chamber and the grand entrance gate, is summed up the history of development of mosque architecture of the Muslim world over the thousand years prior to its construction in 1673.

The north enclosure wall of the mosque was laid close to the Ravi River bank, so a majestic gateway could not be provided on that side and, to keep the symmetry the gate had to be omitted on the south wall as well. Thus a four Aiwan plan like the earlier Delhi Jamia Masjid could not be adopted here.

The walls were built with small kiln-burnt bricks laid in kankar, lime mortar (a kind of hydraulic lime) but have a veneer of red sandstone. The steps leading to the prayer chamber and its plinth are in variegated marble.

The prayer chamber is very deep and is divided into seven compartments by rich engraved arches carried on very heavy piers. Out of the 7 compartments, three double domes finished in marble have superb curvature, whilst the rest have curvilinear domes with a central rib in their interior and flat roof above. In the eastern front aisle, the ceiling of the compartment is flat (Qalamdani) with a curved border (ghalatan) at the cornice level. The original floor of the courtyard was laid with small kiln-burnt bricks laid in the Mussalah pattern. The present red sandstone flooring was laid during the last thorough repairs (1939-60). Similarly, the original floor of the prayer chamber was in cut and dressed bricks with marble and Sang-i-Abri lining forming Mussalah and was also replaced by marble Mussalah during the last repairs.

Murree Brewery

Murree Brewery is the maker of Pakistan's premier beer brand, Murree Beer. Murree Brewery also exports to the Middle East and many European countries, where it is available in Indian and Pakistani restaurants. The Murree Brewery Company Ltd., owned by the Bhandara Family, was established in 1860 to meet the beer requirements of British personnel under the British Raj at Ghora Gali near the resort place of Murree. In the 1880s the company established further breweries in Rawalpindi and Quetta and a distillery was also established in Rawalpindi. Due to scarcity of water in Murree in the 1920s, brewing was mostly transferred to Rawalpindi but malting continued at Ghora Gali until the 1940s, when this property was sold. This brewery, built in the Gothic style of architecture, was burnt during the partition riots of 1947/48, while the brewery in Quetta was destroyed in the 1935 Balochistan earthquake.

Jamrud Fort

Jamrud is a town located in the Khyber Agency, one of the Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan. The town is the doorway to the Khyber pass, part of the Hindu Kush range. The town has road and rail linkages with Peshawar city of Pakistan, and a pass connects it with Landi Kotal, located near the borders of Afghanistan. Jamrud Fort was built by the Sikhs in 1823. In 1837, it was here that the Afghans attacked the Sikhs during the Battle of Jamrud and Sardar Hari Singh Nalwa, the Sikh Commander, was killed.

 Lawrence hall

Halfway down on the other end of the Mall stood Montgomery and Lawrence halls. The larger former building faced the Mall on the edge of what became the 12-acre Lawrence Gardens, known as "the Kensington Gardens of Lahore.The funds for the smaller Henry Lawrence Hall came from public subscriptions raised in 1861-62 in his memory. The building itself was opened in December 1864. Lawrence Hall was the centre of colonial public life in Lahore; the main public building was used for concerts, theatricals and "other entertainments" like magic lantern exhibitions, Minstrels, the Great Australian Circus and variety groups were regular visitors.

Shalimar Gardens

The Shalimar Gardens sometimes written Shalamar Gardens is a Persian garden and it was built by the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in Lahore, modern day Pakistan. Construction began in 1641 A.D. (1051 A.H.) and was completed the following year. The project management was carried out under the superintendence of Khalilullah Khan, a noble of Shah Jahan's court, in cooperation with Ali Mardan Khan and Mulla Alaul Maulk Tuni.

The Shalimar Gardens are laid out in the form of an oblong parallelogram, surrounded by a high brick wall, which is famous for its intricate fretwork. The gardens measure 658 meters north to south and 258 meters east to west. In 1981, Shalimar Gardens was included as a UNESCO World Heritage Site along with the Lahore Fort, under the UNESCO Convention concerning the protection of the world's cultural and natural heritage sites in 1972.

Kim’s Gun

The Zamzama Gun, also known as Kim’s Gun or Bhangianwala Toap is large bore cannon. It was cast in 1757 in Lahore, now in Pakistan but at the time part of the Durrani Empire. It is currently on display in front of the Lahore Museum in Lahore, Pakistan.

The gun was used by Ahmed Shah in the battle of Panipat, in 1761. After the battle, on his way back to Kabul, he left it at Lahore with his governor, Khawaja Ubed, as the carriage that was supposed to take the gun to Kabul was not ready. The other gun he took with him but that one was lost in passage through the Chenab.

In 1762, Hari Singh Bhangi went into battle with Khawaja Ubed. Bhangi attacked the then village of Khawaja Said two miles from Lahore (now part of the city of Lahore), where the Mughal governor Khawaja Ubed had his arsenal, and seized his artillery, arms and ammunition. Amongst the guns captured was the Zamzama Gun itself. It was renamed by its Sikh captors Bhangi Toap. For the next two years, it lay in the Shah Burj of the Lahore Fort. Thereafter, Lehna Singh and Gujjar Singh Bhangi got hold of it and they gave it to Charat Singh Shukerchakia as his share in the spoils. The Bhangi Sardars thought that Charat Singh would not be able to carry this gun with him and it would remain with them. But contrary to their expectations, Charat Singh successfully carried this gun to his fort at Gujranwala.

From Charat Singh, Zamzama was snatched by the Pashtuns of Chatha who took it to Ahmadnagar where it became a bone of contention between the Pathan brothers Ahmad Khan and Pir Muhammad. In the fight that ensued, two sons of Ahmad Khan and one of Pir Muhammad were killed. In this fight, Gujjar Singh Bhangi sided with Pir Muhammad. After the victory, the gun was restored to Gujjar Singh. After two years, the gun was wrested by Charat Singh Shukerchakia from whom it was once again snatched by the Pashtuns.

Next year, Sardar Jhanda Singh Bhangi defeated the Pashtuns of Chatha and brought the gun to Amritsar. In 1802, Ranjit Singh, after defeating the Bhangis, got hold of the gun. He used it in the battles of Daska, Kasur, Sujanpur, Wazirabad and Multan. In the siege of Multan, the gun was badly damaged.

Zamzama was severely damaged due to its use in wars told above and it had to be brought back to Lahore, unfit for any further use. It was placed outside Delhi Gate, Lahore, where it remained until 1860. When in 1864, Maulawi Nur Ahmad Chishti compiled the TahqiqatiChishti, he found it standing in the Baradari of the garden of Wazir Khan, behind the Lahore Museum. In 1870, it found a new asylum at the entrance of the Lahore Museum, and then located in the Tollinton Market. It was placed in this position on the occasion of the Duke of Edinburgh’s visit to Lahore in 1870. When the present building of the museum was constructed it was removed further west and placed opposite the University Hall Repaired in 1977, the cannon now rests on Mall Road (Shahrah-e-Quaid-e-Azam) with Department of Fine Arts, University of Punjab on one side, and National College of Arts (NCA) and Lahore Museum on the other.

Lahore Railway Station

The Lahore Railway Station in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan was built by the British colonists. It is representative of typical grand British architecture in South Asia during the British Raj. The railway network established by the British was very extensive and is one of their lasting contributions to the culture and infrastructure of this region.

Lahore railway station was built by British Govt. The construction contract was given to Main Mohammad Sultan Chagatai, a formal prince of Royal Mughal Empire (Mohd. Sultan, The owner of many "SARAY" (hotel); built in every big city on grant trunk road, "SARAY" Sultan Peshawar, Lahore, Delhi and so on; The front portion was disliked by the govt.( as seen in older photographs) was rebuilt by Sultan Mohd. from his own pocket.

Government College University, Lahore

Government College University, Lahore is a co-educational public university located on The Mall in Lahore, Pakistan. Although the college was granted the status of university by the Pakistan Government in 2002, the word college is still retained in the name for historical reasons and also because of the wide recognition of the name Government College in Pakistan. The University offers bachelor’s, Master's, and Ph.D. degrees in a variety of disciplines. The university currently has more than 6000 students and 323 faculty members. Alumni of Government College are called Ravians after the nearby Ravi River.

Government College University, Lahore as a college, is older than any other college or university in Pakistan. Under the British Raj the college was opened on January 1, 1864 in a portion of the Palace of Raja Dhyan Singh Haveli. The institution was affiliated with the University of Calcutta for examination. Along with the establishment of the college, Gottlieb Wilhelm Leitner (professor of Arabic and Mohammedan Law at King's College in London) was nominated as principal of college. He later was instrumental in the foundation of Punjab University, Lahore in 1882. The first class consisted of 9 students, all of whom matriculated from Calcutta University. In April 1871, the college moved to its present site. In 1996, it received autonomous status; on September 9, 2002, it became a university

Attock fort

Attock fort was built during the reign of Akbar the Great from 1581 to 1583 under the supervision of Khawaja Shamsuddin Khawafi to protect the passage of the Indus. Today it is sandwiched between Peshawar Road on one side and the River Indus on the other.

 

 

Rawalpindi Railway Station

The Rawalpindi Railway Station is located in the city of Rawalpindi in Punjab Province, Pakistan the Railway Station was built in the 1880s by the government of British India. The British built many railways across South Asia to help facilitate trade and more importantly to help consolidate their rule.

Karachi Gymkhana  

The Karachi Gymkhana is a premier Gymkhana in the city of Karachi. It is located on Club Road in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. The Karachi Gymkhana Club is a sports-house and it was founded in 1886. The KG Club, provided facilities for all sorts of sports and games for its members. The club enrolled over 9000 members along with their families. Karachi Gymkhana is one of the largest club in Asia in view of its membership and sports facilities.

Empress Market

Empress Market is located in Saddar Town of Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. Empress Market was built in 1889 and was named in honor of Queen Victoria, Empress of British Empire in South Asia. Empress Market is the central shopping centre of Karachi.

D. J. Science College

D. J. Science College (Dayaram Jethamal Science College) is an educational institute located in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. Inaugurated as Sindh Arts College by Lord Reay, Governor of Bombay, on January 17, 1882, the college was renamed D. J. Science College upon completion of the present structure on October 15, 1887. Located in the heart of old Karachi, the foundation stone for this college was laid on November 19, 1882, by Lord Dufferin, Viceroy of India. The college is named after Diwan Dayaram Jethmal, its main benefactor. The cost of construction is reported to have been Rs.186, 514 out of which the government contributed Rs. 97,193, the balance being raised through public donations.

The D.J. Sindh Government Science College was founded in 1887, chiefly through the efforts of a far-sighted, prominent Sindhi philanthropist, Mr. Diwan Dayaram Jethmal whose name it bears. The College was opened on 17 January, 1887 by His Excellency Lord Reay, the Governor of Bombay in a bungalow in Thaitai Compound, situated on Bunder Road. Later on it was shifted to the present building in 1892. The College was by then a full-fledged institution with faculties of Arts, Sciences, Engineering and Law. D.J.Sindh Government Science College began primarily as an Arts college with only 28 students and 5 members on its staff.In 1922 with the establishment of separate Engineering College, Engineering classes were dropped from the D.J.College. With the establishment of a Law College in 1925 the Law classes were also dropped. The separate establishment of Engineering and Law College necessitated certain changes in the constitution of the Sindh Arts College Committee. These were purely administrative changes. Consequently, a board was formed to look after the affairs of the expandedCollege. For the next sixty years D.J. Sindh Government Science College catered to the intellectual and academic needs of the people of the Province, being as it was the only institution in the area. It prepared students for the graduate and post-graduate courses of the Bombay and Sindh University. It also provided research facilities in various fields of Sciences. Consequent upon the creation of Pakistan, in the sixty-first year of its existence, D.J.Singh College was formally handed over to the Sindh Government in June 1984. The Sindh Government took over all the buildings, assets and other investments from the Sindh Collegiate Board. These buildings were the main D.J. College building, the Annexe, the Law College Building, the Commerce College building the Engineering College building, Hostel and the D.J.College Gymkhana. The D.J. Sindh College was re-christened as D.J. Sindh Government Science College. D.J. Sindh Government Science College is affiliated to the University of Karachi and the Board of the Intermediate Education Karachi, and prepares students up to B.Sc. Plans are ahead to restore its former glory by re-introducing M.Sc. classes in certain subjects.

 

 

 

 

sundasazeem says:
the best YOUTUBE video for Lahore..nice pick!
Posted on: Jul 16, 2011
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Samadhi of Ranjeet Singh
Samadhi of Ranjeet Singh
Best over view of Pakistani Music…
Lahore
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