World Heritage Sites- Mexico
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World Heritage Mexico sites: http://tinyurl.com/WH-Mexico
World Heritage Mexico sites: http://tinyurl.com/WH-Mexico
Agave Landscape and Ancient Industrial Facilities of Tequila
Valles Region, Jalisco State
N20 51 47 W103 46 43
The 34,658 ha site, between the foothills of the Tequila Volcano and the deep valley of the
N18 07 21 W89 47 00
Calakmul, an important Maya site set deep in the tropical forest of the Tierras Bajas of southern
Criterion i The many commemorative stelae at Calakmul are outstanding examples of Maya art, which throw much light on the political and spiritual development of the city. Criterion ii With a single site Calakmul displays an exceptionally well preserved series of monuments and open spaces representative of Maya architectural, artistic, and urban development over a period of twelve centuries. Criterion iii The political and spiritual way of life of the Maya cities of the Tierras Bajas region is admirably demonstrated by the impressive remains of Calakmul. Criterion iv Calakmul is an outstanding example of a significant phase in human settlement and the development of architecture.
Archaeological Monuments Zone of Xochicalco
Municipalities of Temixco and Miacatlan, Morelos State
N18 48 37 W99 16 30
Xochicalco is an exceptionally well-preserved example of a fortified political, religious and commercial centre from the troubled period of 650��"900 that followed the break-up of the great Mesoamerican states such as
Criterion (iii): Xochicalco is an exceptionally well preserved and complete example of a fortified settlement from the Epiclassic Period of
Archeological Zone of Paquimé, Casas Grandes
N30 22 33 W107 57 20
Paquimé, Casas Grandes, which reached its apogee in the 14th and 15th centuries, played a key role in trade and cultural contacts between the
Criterion iii: Paquimé Casas Grandes bears eloquent and abundant testimony to an important element in the cultural evolution of
Central University City Campus of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM)
N19 19 56 W99 11 17
The ensemble of buildings, sports facilities and open spaces of the Central University City Campus of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), was built from 1949 to 1952 by more than 60 architects, engineers and artists who were involved in the project. As a result, the campus constitutes a unique example of 20th-century modernism integrating urbanism, architecture, engineering, landscape design and fine arts with references to local traditions, especially to
The Central University City Campus of UNAM bears testimony to the modernization of post-revolutionary
The urbanism and architecture of the Central University City Campus of UNAM constitute an outstanding example of the application of the principles of 20th Century modernism merged with features stemming from pre-Hispanic Mexican tradition. The ensemble became one of the most significant icons of modern urbanism and architecture in
Criterion (i): The Central University City Campus of UNAM constitutes a unique example in the 20th century where more than sixty professionals worked together, in the framework of a master plan, to create an urban architectural ensemble that bears testimony to social and cultural values of universal significance.
Criterion (ii): The most important trends of architectural thinking from the 20th century converge in the Central University City Campus of UNAM: modern architecture, historicist regionalism, and plastic integration; the last two of Mexican origin.
Criterion (iv): The Central University City Campus of UNAM is one of the few models around the world where the principles proposed by Modern Architecture and Urbanism were totally applied; the ultimate purpose of which was to offer man a notable improvement in the quality of life.
Since all the fundamental physical components of the original ensemble remain and no major changes have been introduced, the property satisfies the required conditions of integrity and authenticity. The campus conserves unaltered its essential physical components: urban design, buildings, open spaces, circulation system and parking areas, landscape design and works of art. Functions have not changed over time. The existing physical components therefore express the historic, cultural and social values of the ensemble, and its authenticity of design, materials, substance, workmanship and functions.
At the national level, the Central University City Campus of UNAM was listed as a
Earliest 16th-Century Monasteries on the Slopes of
N18 56 05 W98 53 52
These 14 monasteries stand on the slopes of Popocatepetl, to the south-east of
Etat de Veracruz, municipalité de Papantla
N20 28 35 W97 22 39
Located in the state of
Franciscan Missions in the Sierra Gorda of Querétaro
N21 12 15.8 W99 27 50.8 Multiple Locations
The five Franciscan missions of Sierra Gorda were built during the last phase of the conversion to Christianity of the interior of
Criterion ii: The Sierra Gorda Missions exhibit an important interchange of values in the process of evangelisation of central and northern
Historic Centre of
District Federal. Delegations: Cuauhtemoc, Venustiano Carranza et Xochimilco
N19 25 06 W99 07 58
Built in the 16th century by the Spanish on the ruins of
Michoacan. Mairie de Morelia
N19 42 16 W101 11 30
Built in the 16th century,
Etat de Oaxaca de Juarez, municipalites de
N17 03 43 W96 43 18
Inhabited over a period of 1,500 years by a succession of peoples ��" Olmecs, Zapotecs and Mixtecs ��" the terraces, dams, canals, pyramids and artificial mounds of Monte Albán were literally carved out of the mountain and are the symbols of a sacred topography. The nearby city of
Etat de Puebla, municipalites de
N19 02 50 W98 12 30
N22 46 00 W102 33 20
Founded in 1546 after the discovery of a rich silver lode, Zacatecas reached the height of its prosperity in the 16th and 17th centuries. Built on the steep slopes of a narrow valley, the town has breathtaking views and there are many old buildings, both religious and civil. The cathedral, built between 1730 and 1760, dominates the centre of the town. It is notable for its harmonious design and the Baroque profusion of its façades, where European and indigenous decorative elements are found side by side.
N19 50 47 W90 32 14
Criterion (ii): The harbour town of
Etat Querétaro, municipalité de Querétaro
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The old colonial town of
The Committee decided to inscribe the nominated property on the basis of cultural criteria (ii) and (iv) considering that the site is of outstanding universal value and an exceptional example of a colonial town whose layout symbolizes its multi- ethnic population. It is also endowed with a wealth of outstanding buildings, notably from the 17th and 18th centuries.
N18 36 30 W95 39 30
Tlacotalpan, a Spanish colonial river port on the Gulf coast of
Criterion ii: The urban layout and architecture of Tlacotalpan represent a fusion of Spanish and
Etat de: Guanajuato. Municipalite: Guanajuato
N21 01 01 W101 15 20
Founded by the Spanish in the early 16th century, Guanajuato became the world's leading silver-extraction centre in the 18th century. This past can be seen in its 'subterranean streets' and the 'Boca del Inferno', a mineshaft that plunges a breathtaking 600 m. The town's fine Baroque and neoclassical buildings, resulting from the prosperity of the mines, have influenced buildings throughout central
N20 40 26 W103 20 23
The Hospicio Cabañas was built at the beginning of the 19th century to provide care and shelter for the disadvantaged ��" orphans, old people, the handicapped and chronic invalids. This remarkable complex, which incorporates several unusual features designed specifically to meet the needs of its occupants, was unique for its time. It is also notable for the harmonious relationship between the open and built spaces, the simplicity of its design, and its size. In the early 20th century, the chapel was decorated with a superb series of murals, now considered some of the masterpieces of Mexican art. They are the work of José Clemente Orozco, one of the greatest Mexican muralists of the period.
The Committee decided to inscribe this property on the basis of criteria (i), (ii), (iii) and (iv), considering that the Hospicio Cabañas is a unique architectural complex, designed to respond to social and economic requirements for housing the sick, the aged, the young, and the needy, which provides an outstanding solution of great subtlety and humanity. It also houses one of the acknowledged masterpieces of mural art.
N27 37 36.012 W112 32 44.988
The site comprises 244 islands, islets and coastal areas that are located in the Gulf of California in north-eastern
Criterion (ix): The property ranks higher than other marine and insular World Heritage properties as it represents a unique example in which, in a very short distance, there are simultaneously “bridge islands” (populated by land in ocean level decline during glaciations) and oceanic islands (populated by sea and air). Moreover, almost all major oceanographic processes occurring in the planet’s oceans are present in the property, giving it extraordinary importance for the study of marine and coastal processes. These processes are indeed supporting the high marine productivity and biodiversity richness that characterize the
Criterion (vii): The serial property is of striking natural beauty and provides a dramatic setting due to the rugged forms of the islands, with high cliffs and sandy beaches contrasting with the brilliant reflection from the desert and the surrounding turquoise waters. The diversity of forms and colours is complemented by a wealth of birds and marine life. The diversity and abundance of marine life associated to spectacular submarine forms and high water transparency makes the property a diver’s paradise.
Criterion (x): The diversity of terrestrial and marine life is extraordinary and constitutes a unique ecoregion of high priority for biodiversity conservation. The number of species of vascular plants (695) present in this serial property is higher than that reported in other marine and insular properties included in the WH List. The number of species of fish (891) is also highest when compared to a number of marine and insular properties. In addition the marine endemism is important, with 90 endemic fishes. The serial property contains 39% of the world’s total number of marine mammal’s species and a third of the world’s total number of marine cetacean’s species. In addition the serial property includes a good sample of the
N19 25 6 W99 11 54
Built in 1948, the House and Studio of architect Luis Barragán in the suburbs of
Criterion (i): The House and Studio of Luis Barragán represents a masterpiece of the new developments in the Modern Movement, integrating traditional, philosophical and artistic currents into a new synthesis.
Criterion (ii): The work of Luis Barragán exhibits the integration of modern and traditional influences, which in turn have had an important impact especially on the design of garden and urban landscape design.
N19 36 23 W100 14 30
The 56,259 ha biosphere lies within rugged forested mountains about 100 km northwest of
The Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve World Heritage property protects key overwintering sites for the monarch butterfly. The overwintering concentration of butterflies in the property is a superlative natural phenomenon. The millions of monarch butterflies that return to the property every year bend tree branches by their weight, fill the sky when they take flight, and make a sound like light rain with the beating of their wings. Witnessing this unique phenomenon is an exceptional experience of nature.
Criterion (vii): The overwintering concentration of the monarch butterfly in the property is the most dramatic manifestation of the phenomenon of insect migration. Up to a billion monarch butterflies return annually, from breeding areas as far away as
The property includes more than half of the overwintering colonies of the monarch butterfly’s eastern population. They provide a good sample of the areas that are essential for maintaining this superlative natural phenomenon. The maintenance of the standing forest and the microclimates that they create is the key management requirement, thus any threat to the forests is of utmost concern. Illegal logging is a known threat to the property with potential direct impacts on its Outstanding Universal Value. Public use has been increasing and the levels of visitation and infrastructure provided require careful control both in relation to impacts on the ecosystem and the quality of experience provided by the property to visitors. Due to its migratory nature, the maintenance of the overwintering phenomenon also requires attention to the conservation of the monarch butterfly by those countries through which it travels during its life cycle.
Requirements for Protection and Management
The principal focus of protection and management should be to prevent illegal logging in the property. Priorities to achieve this include concerted planning and action between all relevant federal, state and local agencies, and work with local communities on environmental protection and the provision of alternative livelihoods to logging. As the overwintering phenomenon is a significant attractor to visitors, management also needs to be directed to achieving sustainable public use of the property. This should respect the quality of the visitor experience and promote benefit-sharing mechanisms for local communities as an incentive to enhance their support to the conservation of the property. Continued investment in coordinated continent-wide management of the migratory phenomenon is a further important dimension of site management. Achieving all of these priorities requires the provision of adequate and sustained institutional and financial support.
N17 29 00 W92 03 00
A prime example of a Mayan sanctuary of the classical period,
Etat de Yucatan, Municipalité de Tinum
N20 40 W88 36
This sacred site was one of the greatest Mayan centres of the Yucatán peninsula. Throughout its nearly 1,000-year history, different peoples have left their mark on the city. The Maya and Toltec vision of the world and the universe is revealed in their stone monuments and artistic works. The fusion of Mayan construction techniques with new elements from central
N19 41 30 W98 50 30
The holy city of Teotihuacan ('the place where the gods were created') is situated some 50 km north-east of Mexico City. Built between the 1st and 7th centuries A.D., it is characterized by the vast size of its monuments ��" in particular, the Temple of Quetzalcoatl and the Pyramids of the Sun and the Moon, laid out on geometric and symbolic principles. As one of the most powerful cultural centres in Mesoamerica, Teotihuacan extended its cultural and artistic influence throughout the region, and even beyond.
Etat de Yucatan, municipalites Muna et Santa Elena
N20 21 42 W89 46 13
The Mayan town of Uxmal, in Yucatán, was founded c. A.D. 700 and had some 25,000 inhabitants. The layout of the buildings, which date from between 700 and 1000, reveals a knowledge of astronomy. The Pyramid of the Soothsayer, as the Spaniards called it, dominates the ceremonial centre, which has well-designed buildings decorated with a profusion of symbolic motifs and sculptures depicting Chaac, the god of rain. The ceremonial sites of Uxmal, Kabah, Labna and Sayil are considered the high points of Mayan art and architecture.
The Committee decided to inscribe the nominated property on the basis of cultural criteria (i), (ii) and (iii) considering that the site is of outstanding universal value. The ruins of the ceremonial structures at Uxmal represent the pinnacle of late Mayan art and architecture in their design, layout and ornamentation, and the complex of Uxmal and its three related towns of Kabáh, Labná and Sayil admirably demonstrate the social and economic structure of late Mayan society.
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The fortified town, first established in the 16th century to protect the Royal Route inland, reached its apogee in the 18th century when many of its outstanding religious and civic buildings were built in the style of the Mexican Baroque. Some of these buildings are masterpieces of the style that evolved in the transition from Baroque to neoclassical. Situated 14 km from the town, the Jesuit sanctuary, also dating from the 18th century, is one of the finest examples of Baroque art and architecture in the New Spain. It consists of a large church, and several smaller chapels, all decorated with oil paintings by Rodriguez Juárez and mural paintings by Miguel Antonio Martínez de Pocasangre. Because of its location, San Miguel de Allende acted as a melting pot where Spaniards, Creoles and Amerindians exchanged cultural influences while the Sanctuary of Jesús Nazareno de Atotonilco constitutes an exceptional example of the exchange between European and Latin American cultures. Its architecture and interior decoration testify to the influence of Saint Ignacio de Loyola’s doctrine.
The Swiss Tectonic Arena Sardona presents an exceptional and dramatic display of mountain building through continental collision. The property is distinguished by the clear three-dimensional exposure of the structures and processes that characterise this phenomenon in a mountain setting, its history of study, and its ongoing contribution to geological sciences.
Criterion (viii): Earth’s history, geological and geomorphic features and processes: The Swiss Tectonic Arena Sardona provides an exceptional display of mountain building tectonics and has been recognised as a key site for geological sciences since the 18th century. The clear exposure of the Glarus Overthrust is a key, but not the only significant, feature. The exposures of the rocks below and above this feature are visible in three dimensions and, taken together, have made substantial contributions to the understanding of mountain building tectonics. Its geological features can be readily appreciated by all visitors. The property can be differentiated from other similar sites by the combination of the clear exposure of the phenomenon in a mountain setting, its history of study, and its ongoing contribution to geological sciences.
The property contains the full range of tectonic features necessary to display the phenomenon of mountain building. Key attributes of the site include the Glarus Overthrust and the associated folded and faulted geological exposures above and below it. Other key attributes of the property are the accessibility of the features in three dimensions, and access to the thrust surface of the Glarus Overthrust. Associated intangible values relate to the importance of the property as a formative site for the geological sciences; and the features that were part of these studies remain visible and in good condition in the present day.
Requirements for Protection and Management
The major exposures of the geological features are within protected areas and are substantially unthreatened. The primary management issue is to allow the natural processes of slope erosion to continue. Other key management issues relate to the continued provision of safe visitor and research access and protection of key features such as the exposures of the thrust surface. The communication of the key values of the property is also an important priority and continued investment and enhancement of visitor interpretation and education strategies are required.
State: Lower California Sud Municipality
N27 39 20 W112 54 58.0
From c. 100 B.C. to A.D. 1300, the Sierra de San Francisco (in the El Vizcaino reserve, in Baja California) was home to a people who have now disappeared but who left one of the most outstanding collections of rock paintings in the world. They are remarkably well-preserved because of the dry climate and the inaccessibility of the site. Showing human figures and many animal species and illustrating the relationship between humans and their environment, the paintings reveal a highly sophisticated culture. Their composition and size, as well as the precision of the outlines and the variety of colours, but especially the number of sites, make this an impressive testimony to a unique artistic tradition.
Quintana Roo, Cozumel et Felipe Carrillo Puerto
N19 23 00 W87 47 30
In the language of the Mayan peoples who once inhabited this region, Sian Ka'an means 'Origin of the Sky'. Located on the east coast of the Yucatán peninsula, this biosphere reserve contains tropical forests, mangroves and marshes, as well as a large marine section intersected by a barrier reef. It provides a habitat for a remarkably rich flora and a fauna comprising more than 300 species of birds, as well as a large number of the region's characteristic terrestrial vertebrates, which cohabit in the diverse environment formed by its complex hydrological system.
Basse Californie Sud, Municipality of Mulege
N27 47 32 W114 13 40
Located in the central part of the