Cagliari, the capital city of Sardinia and founded by Phoenicians, is located on the southern end of the island. Often referred to as the "City of the Sun", the city has some interesting medieval architecture and archaeological wonders left behind by different cultures. Phoenicians founded the ancient port town of Cagliari, and many different civilizations have dominated and influenced its culture.
Besides its crystal-clear sea and one of the most beautiful and longest beaches in the Mediterranean, Cagliari offers an unspoiled natural environment consisting of lagoons, bird sanctuaries, and wildlife reserves which are unique in Europe. Il Poetto, Cagliari's most popular stretch of beach spans from the Devil's Saddle to the Margine Rosso (Red Bluff). Behind Il Poetto, the salt water Stagno di Molentargius provides a habitat for flamingos.
Cagliari's historic "old town" (Castello) has an appealing North African character. In the Castello district, the Romans and, later, Pisans, built defences. You can linger at the various archaeological sites along the route, or visit the Cittadella dei Musei. It houses several museums, including the Museo Nazionale Archaeologico. This museum has an extensive collection of Sardinian artefacts from the Nuraghic era to the Byzantine, ornaments from the Punic Phoenician Age, and impressive Roman glass works and mosaics. Also in the Cittadella dei Musei is the Pinacoteca, an art gallery which displays medieval and Baroque religious paintings.